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Video tutorials for library research strategies and resources.

Chicago Notes & Bibliography: Citing Books

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite different types of books using the Chicago notes and bibliography citation style.

There are two styles within Chicago: author-date and notes and bibliography. The notes and bibliography style lists the title component second in a citation, and uses footnotes and endnotes to refer to ideas within a paper. This tutorial will cover the basics of the notes and bibliography style.

Within notes and bibliography, you will format the citation differently depending on whether the citation is going in a bibliography at the end of your paper or if it is a footnote or endnote. Bibliographies can include all sources you consulted in researching your paper, while notes are directly related to the information you are referring to within your text. In this tutorial, the bibliography example will be given first, and then the note example.

This tutorial will show the basics for citing a book, how to cite if there is more than one author or if a book is not a first edition, and how to cite a chapter from an edited book.

Example 1: A Book With One Author

For the first example, you will learn how to cite this book: Prisoners of War: A Reference Handbook.

The first step is to identify who wrote the book. In this example, the author is Arnold Krammer.

To list an author, type the name in reverse order. Type the last name, a comma, and then the first name, followed by a period. If the author’s middle name or initial is given, include it after the first name.

Bibliography Example:
Krammer, Arnold.

Next, identify the title of the book. The cover shows the title is Prisoners of War: A Reference Handbook. Even though there is no colon on the front page, A Reference Handbook is in a smaller font. This shows that it is the subtitle, and should be separated from the title with a colon.

List the title of the book after the author, in italics. Make sure to capitalize all important words, including the first word of the title and subtitle.

Bibliography Example:
Krammer, Arnold. Prisoners of War: A Reference Handbook.

The last information you need is the publication information. This consists of the publisher, publication location, and date. The book's title page shows that the publisher is Praeger Security International, and the publication location is Westport. You only need to give the first city. If the city is not well-known, include the two letter state abbreviation.

To find the date, you will need to open the book and look inside, usually on the back of the title page, to find the copyright date, 2008.

Type the city, then a comma, and the state abbreviation if the city is not well-known. Next type a colon, the name of the publisher, a comma, and then the date. End your citation with a period. This concludes your citation.

Bibliography Example:
Krammer, Arnold. Prisoners of War: A Reference Handbook. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2008.

If you refer to a work in your paper, either by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include a note. Footnotes are listed at the bottom of the page, while endnotes are listed together at the end of the paper. Notes follow the same general order as a bibliography entry, but components are usually separated by commas, and the author's name is listed in normal order. Book publication information is placed in parentheses. If you are referring to a specific page within your paper, include that last.

Note Example:

As Krammer writes, "The history of the prisoner of war is as old as the history of warfare and certainly as brutal."1

1. Arnold Krammer, Prisoners of War: A Reference Handbook (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2008), 1.

Example 2: Multiple Authors; Editions

This book has two authors: Kenneth D. Wald and Allison Calhoun-Brown. The title and publication information have been obtained from the book. Note that this book is a fifth edition. You will need to include that information in your citation as well.

When citing multiple authors, list the first author in reverse order, followed by a comma, and then the other authors, this time in normal order, with the word and before the last author. The edition is placed after the title.

Bibliography Example:
Wald, Kenneth D., and Allison Calhoun-Brown. Religion and Politics in the United States. 5th ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007.

A note for this book will list both authors in normal order, and commas between the authors, title, and edition. The publication information will be placed in parentheses.

Note Example:

1. Kenneth D. Wald and Allison Calhoun-Brown, Religion and Politics in the United States, 5th ed. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007).

Example 3: A Chapter in an Edited Book

In this example, the entire book is overseen by editors, but each chapter has a different author. If you are only using information from a single chapter, you will need to cite it a certain way.

First, find the general information for this book, as demonstrated in the previous examples. Then locate the author, title and page numbers of the chapter you are citing.

To cite, list the author of the chapter first, followed by the title of the chapter, in quotation marks. Then type the word In, the title of the book, the words edited by, the editors' names, a comma, and then the page numbers. End with the publication information.

Bibliography Example:
Landes, David. "Culture Makes Almost All the Difference." In Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress, edited by Lawrence E. Harrison and Samuel P. Huntington, 2–13. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

For this note, the words edited by have been abbreviated to ed. Include the specific page numbers of the information you are citing after the publication information, instead of the entire page range.

Note Example:

1. David Landes, "Culture Makes Almost All the Difference," in Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress, ed. Lawrence E. Harrison and Samuel P. Huntington (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 13.

For multiple citations of the same resource, you may use shortened notes. After the first full note, you may use the author's last name, a shortened version of the title, and the page number you are referring to.

Note Example:

1. David Landes, "Culture Makes Almost All the Difference," in Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress, ed. Lawrence E. Harrison and Samuel P. Huntington (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 13.

2. Landes, "Culture," 11.

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing books, visit the Santa Fe Library's Chicago Citation Guide. This can be found by visiting the library's website, clicking Guides > Citation Guides and then Chicago Citation Guide. Choose Notes & Bibliography in the left navigation menu.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing books using the Chicago notes and bibliography style. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian.

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
sfcollege.edu/library

Chicago Notes & Bibliography: Citing eBooks

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite eBooks using the Chicago notes and bibliography citation style.

There are two styles within Chicago: author-date and notes and bibliography. The notes and bibliography style lists the title component second in a citation, and uses footnotes and endnotes to refer to ideas within a paper. This tutorial will cover the basics of the notes and bibliography style.

Within notes and bibliography, you will format the citation differently depending on whether the citation is going in a bibliography at the end of your paper or if it is a footnote or endnote. Bibliographies can include all sources you consulted in researching your paper, while notes are directly related to the information you are referring to within your text. In this tutorial, the bibliography example will be given first, and then the note example.

This tutorial will cover how to cite an eBook from a library database and how to cite a downloaded eBook such as a Kindle eBook.

Example 1: An eBook from a Database

For the first example, you will learn how to cite an eBook from a database. The eBook Flappers: A Guide to an American Subculture is from the database eBook Collection (EBSCOhost).

To open this eBook, click PDF Full Text on the left side of the detailed record. Navigate to the title page by either clicking on the title page hyperlink in the table of contents, or by using the arrows to click through to the title page.

The first piece of information you need is the author of the book. The author of this book is Kelly Boyer Sagert.

To list an author, type the name in reverse order. Type the last name, a comma, and then the first name, followed by a period. If the author’s middle name or initial is given, include it after the first name.

Bibliography Example:
Sagert, Kelly Boyer.

Next, identify the title of the book. The title page shows the title is Flappers: A Guide to an American Subculture. Even though there is no colon on the title page, A Guide to an American Subculture is smaller and italicized. This shows that it is the subtitle and should be separated from the title with a colon.

List the title of the book after the author, in italics. Capitalize all important words in the title, including the first words of the title and subtitle, and end with a period.

Bibliography Example:
Sagert, Kelly Boyer. Flappers: A Guide to an American Subculture.

Next, identify the publication information. This is the city where the book was published, the name of the publisher, and the date. This information is usually given on the title page.

If the information is not available on the title page, look for it on the next page. This book was published in Santa Barbara by Greenwood Press in 2010. If more than one city is given, choose the first one listed.

List the publication city, a colon, and then the publisher, a comma, and the date. If the city is not well known, you can provide the two letter state code.

Bibliography Example:
Sagert, Kelly Boyer. Flappers: A Guide to an American Subculture. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 2010.

When citing an eBook from a database, include the database. In this case it is eBook Collection. The name of this database is listed at the top of the screen when viewing the detailed record. Ebook Central is another eBook database you may see from the library catalog.

To complete the citation, add the name of the eBook database, followed by a period.

Bibliography Example:
Sagert, Kelly Boyer. Flappers: A Guide to an American Subculture. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 2010. eBook Collection.

If you refer to a work in your paper, either by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include a note. Footnotes are listed at the bottom of the page, while endnotes are listed together at the end of the paper. Notes follow the same general order as a bibliography entry, but components are usually separated by commas, and the author's name is listed in normal order. Book publication information is placed in parentheses, and the database is listed last. If you are referring to a specific page number within your paper, insert that prior to the eBook database name.

Note Example:

Sagert notes that Florida legislators considered banning the word "flapper."1

1. Kelly Boyer Sagert, Flappers: A Guide to an American Subculture (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 2010), 11, eBook Collection.

Example 2: A Downloaded eBook

To cite a downloaded eBook, begin your citation as if you were citing a print book. For this example, we will cite the Kindle eBook version of The Great Gatsby.

Navigate to the title page to find the author, title, and publication information. Add Kindle to the end. Other edition types include Nook or PDF.

Bibliography Example:
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, 2003. Kindle.

A note for this book will list the author in normal order, with commas between the author, title, location, and format. The publication information will be placed in parentheses. Provide the page or chapter location for the information you are using prior to the eBook format.

Note Example:

Nick states "I wasn't actually in love, but I felt a sort of tender curiosity."1

1. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (New York: Scribner, 2003), chap. 3, Kindle.

For multiple citations of the same resource, you may use shortened notes. After the first full note, you may use the author's last name, a shortened version of the title, and the page number you are referring to.

Note Example:

1. Kelly Boyer Sagert, Flappers: A Guide to an American Subculture (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 2010), 11, eBook Collection.

2. Sagert, Flappers, 11.

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing eBooks, visit the Santa Fe Library's Chicago Citation Guide. This can be found by visiting the library's website, clicking Guides > Citation Guides and then Chicago Citation Guide. Choose Notes & Bibliography in the left navigation menu.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing eBooks using the Chicago notes and bibliography style. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian.

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
sfcollege.edu/library

Chicago Notes & Bibliography: Citing Journal Articles

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite journal articles using the Chicago notes and bibliography citation style.

There are two styles within Chicago: author-date and notes and bibliography. The notes and bibliography style lists the title component second in a citation, and uses footnotes and endnotes to refer to ideas within a paper. This tutorial will cover the basics of the notes and bibliography style.

Within notes and bibliography, you will format the citation differently depending on whether the citation is going in a bibliography at the end of your paper or if it is a footnote or endnote. Bibliographies can include all sources you consulted in researching your paper, while notes are directly related to the information you are referring to within your text. In this tutorial, the bibliography example will be given first, and then the note example.

This tutorial will show the basics for citing a print journal and how to cite online journal articles.

Example 1: A Print Journal Article

For the first example, you will learn how to cite a journal article that you found in print.

The first step is to identify the authors of the article. There are two authors listed: Alex J. Bowers and Ryan Sprott.

When citing multiple authors, list the first author in reverse order, followed by a comma, and then the other authors, this time in normal order, with the word and before the last author. List a period at the end of the last author’s name.

Bibliography Example:
Bowers, Alex J., and Ryan Sprott.

Next, identify the title of the article. The title will usually be at the top of the article, in a larger size font. Include the subtitle, which comes after a colon.

The title of the article is listed after the authors, in quotation marks. Capitalize all important words, including the first words of the title and subtitle. End the title with a period, before the closing quotation mark.

Bibliography Example:
Bowers, Alex J., and Ryan Sprott. "Examining the Multiple Trajectories Associated with Dropping Out of High School: A Growth Mixture Model Analysis."

The last piece of information you need is the journal information. In this case, you need the title of the journal, along with the volume, issue (sometimes called number), page range for the article, and date. Usually this information can be found on the cover of the journal, on the table of contents, or at the top of the article. For the page range, you should look at the first and last pages of the article.

Type the journal title, in italics, capitalizing all major words, the volume, a comma, the number or issue after the abbreviation no., the date in parentheses, a colon, and then the page range of the article. This concludes the citation.

Bibliography Example:
Bowers, Alex J., and Ryan Sprott. "Examining the Multiple Trajectories Associated with Dropping Out of High School: A Growth Mixture Model Analysis." The Journal of Educational Research 105, no. 3 (2012): 176–195.

If you refer to a work in your paper, either by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include a note. Footnotes are listed at the bottom of the page, while endnotes are listed together at the end of the paper. Notes follow the same general order as a bibliography entry, but components are usually separated by commas, and the author's name is listed in normal order. For the page component, only include the specific pages you are referencing.

Note Example:

Bowers and Sprott claim that "students' dropping out of high schools in the United States is a well known and pervasive problem."1

1. Alex J. Bowers and Ryan Sprott, "Examining the Multiple Trajectories Associated with Dropping Out of High School: A Growth Mixture Model Analysis," The Journal of Educational Research 105, no. 3 (2012): 176.

Example 2: A Journal Article Found Online with a DOI

Often, you will find journal articles online using the library's databases or other online resources. This article was found online using the database Academic Search Complete.

Most of the information you need to cite an article can be found in the database's record. In this database, the title is at the top and the date and journal information are in the line that says Source.

Because this article is found online, you need one more element. You need the DOI, which stands for Digital Object Identifier. A DOI can be found in the article's record, or sometimes on the first page of the article.

All the elements of the journal article will be cited like the first example. The DOI will be included at the end, after the prefix https://doi.org/. Place a period after the DOI.

Bibliography Example:
Confino, Alon. "Miracles and Snow in Palestine and Israel: Tantura, a History of 1948." Israel Studies 17, no. 2 (2012): 25–61. https://doi.org/10.2979/israelstudies.17.2.25.

A note for this article will list author in normal order, and commas between the author, title, journal information, and DOI. Provide the page(s) for the information you are using prior to the DOI.

Note Example:

1. Alon Confino, "Miracles and Snow in Palestine and Israel: Tantura, a History of 1948," Israel Studies 17, no. 2 (2012): 30–31, https://doi.org/10.2979/israelstudies.17.2.25.

Example 3: A Journal Article Found Online without a DOI

Not all journal articles have a DOI. If you have looked through the article and database record carefully and cannot find one, you will need to provide a stable URL.

Some databases, like JSTOR, will list a stable URL in the record.

In other databases, you may need to click a permalink icon to generate one. You should not usually use the URL in the browser bar, as this URL will change each time the article is accessed.

Cite the article as normal, but add the stable URL at the end, followed by a period.

Bibliography Example:
Byrne, Edmund F. "Business Ethics: A Helpful Hybrid in Search of Integrity." Journal of Business Ethics 37, no. 2 (2002): 121–133. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25074740.

For any work with more than four authors, notes only need to include the first author’s last name and then the abbreviation et al. which means "and all the rest." Bibliographies should list up to ten authors.

Bibliography Example:
Penprase, Barbara, Lisa Mileto, Andrea Bittinger, Anne Marie Hranchook, Jana A. Atchley, Sarah Bergakker, Treavor Eimers, and Holly Franson. "The Use of High-Fidelity Simulation in the Admissions Process: One Nurse Anesthesia Program's Experience." AANA Journal 80 no. 1 (2012): 43–48. http://db25.linccweb.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=73463888&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Note Example:
1. Barbara Penprase et al., "The Use of High-Fidelity Simulation in the Admissions Process: One Nurse Anesthia Program's Experience," AANA Journal

For multiple citations of the same resource, you may use shortened notes. After the first full note, you may use the author's last name, a shortened version of the title, and the page number you are referring to.

Note Example:

1. Edmund F. Byrne, "Business Ethics: A Helpful Hybrid in Search of Integrity," Journal of Business Ethics 37, no. 2 (2002): 124, http://www.jstor.org/stable/25074740.

2. Byrne, "Business," 126.

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing journal articles, visit the Santa Fe Library's Chicago Citation Guide. This can be found by visiting the library's website, clicking Guides > Citation Guides and then Chicago Citation Guide. Choose Notes & Bibliography in the left navigation menu.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing journal articles using the Chicago notes and bibliography style. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian.

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
sfcollege.edu/library

Chicago Notes & Bibliography: Citing Videos

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite different videos using the Chicago notes and bibliography citation style.

There are two styles within Chicago: author-date and notes and bibliography. The notes and bibliography style lists the title component second in a citation, and uses footnotes and endnotes to refer to ideas within a paper. This tutorial will cover the basics of the notes and bibliography style.

Within notes and bibliography, you will format the citation differently depending on whether the citation is going in a bibliography at the end of your paper or if it is a footnote or endnote. Bibliographies can include all sources you consulted in researching your paper, while notes are directly related to the information you are referring to within your text. In this tutorial, the bibliography example will be given first, and then the note example.

This tutorial will show the basics for citing a DVD, a streaming video, and an online video such as a YouTube video.

Example 1: A DVD

For the first example, you will learn how to cite a DVD or another physical video such as a Blu-Ray or VHS.

The first step is to identify the director of the film. You can find the director on the DVD case, in the library catalog record, or by looking on IMDB.com.

List the director's name in reverse order, followed by a comma, and then the abbreviation dir., which stands for director.

Bibliography Example:
Edelman, Ezra, dir.

Next, identify the title of the film. This title is O.J.: Made in America.

List the title of the DVD after the director, in italics, followed by a period. Capitalize all important words, including the first words of the title and subtitle.

Bibliography Example:
Edelman, Ezra, dir. O.J.: Made in America.

Next, identify the date the film was first released. Use the theatrical release date, not the DVD release date.

List the year after the title, followed by a semicolon.

Bibliography Example:
Edelman, Ezra, dir. O.J.: Made in America. 2016;

Now, identify the DVD or Blu-Ray disc information. Look for the publisher, location, and release date of the DVD. This can be found on the disc case or in the library catalog.

Bibliography Example:
Edelman, Ezra, dir. O.J.: Made in America. 2016; Owensboro, KY: Team Marketing, 2016.

If both dates are the same (film release date and DVD release date), omit the first date.

Bibliography Example:
Edelman, Ezra, dir. O.J.: Made in America. Owensboro, KY: Team Marketing, 2016.

Finally, end with the format of the video. This could be VHS, DVD, Blu-Ray disc, or another format. End the citation with a period.

Bibliography Example:
Edelman, Ezra, dir. O.J.: Made in America. Owensboro, KY: Team Marketing, 2016. DVD.

If you refer to a work in your paper, either by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include a note. Footnotes are listed at the bottom of the page, while endnotes are listed together at the end of the paper. Notes follow the same general order as a bibliography entry, but components are usually separated by commas, and the director's name is listed in normal order. Film date and disc publication information is placed in parentheses, and the format is listed last.

Note Example:

David Gascon is quoted as saying "That wasn't a police chase, that's an accompaniment."1

1. Ezra Edelman, dir., O.J.: Made in America. (Owensboro, KY: Team Marketing, 2016), DVD.

Example 2: Streaming Videos

Streaming videos may be found through the library's Films on Demand database, or through another streaming service, such as Netflix. These are videos that you watch entirely online.

Films on Demand videos will have limited information. Look for a producer to serve as the author or creator. The title will be listed underneath the embedded video.

To locate the date, click the Citation link and find the date listed in the MLA citation.

For a permalink, click the Embed/Link option and copy the Record URL.

To assemble the citation, provide the producer, video title (in italics), and date, with periods separating each component. Next, include the format of the video, which is Films on Demand video. Type a period, and then add the permalink for the video.

Bibliography Example:
INTELICOM. Virtue Ethics. 2011. Films on Demand video. https://fod.infobase.com/ PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=99198&xtid=70861.

A note for this video will include commas between the citation elements.

Note Example:

1. INTELICOM, Virtue Ethics, 2011, Films on Demand video, https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=99198&xtid=70861.

Example 3: YouTube Video

This example will show you how to cite an online video, such as a YouTube video or TED talk.

Look at the YouTube page to locate the creator, date, title, length, and URL of the video. The Share button will provide a shortened URL.

A YouTube video citation is similar to the past examples. Use the YouTube user name for the author. List the video title, in quotation marks after the author. Next, type the full date followed by a period, and then the format, which is YouTube video. After a comma, provide the length of the video, a period, and then the URL.

Bibliography Example:
Smithsonian Channel. "How and Why the Great Wall of China Was Really Built." August 28, 2015. YouTube video, 4:52. https://youtu.be/m68zyXyeYG0.

A note for this video will include commas between the citation elements.

Note Example:

1. Smithsonian Channel, "How and Why the Great Wall of China Was Really Built," August 28, 2015, YouTube video, 4:52, https://youtu.be/m68zyXyeYG0.

For multiple citations of the same resource, you may use shortened notes. After the first full note, you may use the author’s last name and a shortened version of the title.

Note Example:

1. Ezra Edelman, dir., O.J.: Made in America. (Owensboro, KY: Team Marketing, 2016), DVD.

2. Edelman, O.J.

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing videos, visit the Santa Fe Library's Chicago Citation Guide. This can be found by visiting the library's website, clicking Guides > Citation Guides and then Chicago Citation Guide. Choose Notes & Bibliography in the left navigation menu.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing videos using the Chicago notes and bibliography style. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian.

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
sfcollege.edu/library

Chicago Notes & Bibliography: Citing Web Resources

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite Web resources using the Chicago notes and bibliography citation style.

There are two styles within Chicago: author-date and notes and bibliography. The notes and bibliography style lists the title component second in a citation, and uses footnotes and endnotes to refer to ideas within a paper. This tutorial will cover the basics of the notes and bibliography style.

Within notes and bibliography, you will format the citation differently depending on whether the citation is going in a bibliography at the end of your paper or if it is a footnote or endnote. Bibliographies can include all sources you consulted in researching your paper, while notes are directly related to the information you are referring to within your text. In this tutorial, the bibliography example will be given first, and then the note example.

This tutorial will show the basics for citing web pages, web pages without a date, and blog posts.

Example 1: A Web Page

For the first example, you will learn how to cite a Web page.

The first step is to identify the author of the Web page. While resources are often written by specific people, sometimes an entire organization is the author. In this case, since the author is listed as Mayo Clinic Staff, and not a specific person, Mayo Clinic is the author.

To list an author, write the last name, a comma, and the first and/or middle names, followed by a period. For organizational authors, however, simply list the name of the organization, capitalizing all important words.

Bibliography Example:
Mayo Clinic.

Next, identify the title of the Web page. The title will usually be above the text, in a larger size font. In this case, the title is Stem Cell Transplant.

The title of the page is listed after the date, in quotation marks, followed by a period. Capitalize all important words.

Bibliography Example:
Mayo Clinic. "Stem Cell Transplant."

Next, identify the title of the website that this page is a part of. In this case, the website is Mayo Clinic. If you are having trouble locating the name of the website, try looking at the URL.

The title of the website is listed after the Web page title, with a period at the end. In this case, the title of the website is identical to the author, so this will be omitted.

Bibliography Example:
Mayo Clinic. "Stem Cell Transplant." Mayo Clinic.

Next, identify when this Web page was published. Dates are usually found near the top or the bottom of the page. Do not use a copyright date. In this case, the date is March 23, 2013.

Bibliography Example:
Mayo Clinic. "Stem Cell Transplant." March 23, 2013.

The last information you need is the URL or Web address. You can find this in the address bar at the top of your browser.

Type or paste the URL after the date. End with a period. This completes your citation.

Bibliography Example:
Mayo Clinic. "Stem Cell Transplant." March 23, 2013. http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/stem-cell-transplant/in-depth/stem-cells/ART-20048117?p=1.

If you refer to a work in your paper, either by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include a note. Footnotes are listed at the bottom of the page, while endnotes are listed together at the end of the paper. Notes follow the same general order as a bibliography entry, but components are usually separated by commas, and the author's name is listed in normal order. If the author and website are the same, begin a note with the title, and include the website after the page title.

Note Example:

The Mayo Clinic states that "stem cells may have the potential to be grown to become new tissue for use in transplant and regenerative medicine."1

1. "Stem Cell Transplant," Mayo Clinic, March 23, 2013, http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/stem-cell-transplant/in-depth/stem-cells/ART-20048117?p=1.

Example 2: Web Page without a Date

Sometimes a Web page may not provide all of the information you need for a citation. This resource does not include a date.

Cite the Web page as in the first example. For the date component, type Accessed and then include the date you accessed the resource.

Bibliography Example:
Marie-Bénédicte, Astier. "The Winged Victory of Samothrace." Louvre. Accessed July 3, 2018. https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/winged-victory-samothrace.

The note will follow the same formatting as before, with commas and the author's name in normal order, but the word accessed will be lowercase.

Note Example:

Marie-Bénédicte discusses the disparity between the sculptural detail on the left and right sides.1

1. Astier Marie-Bénédicte, "The Winged Victory of Samothrace," Louvre, accessed July 3, 2018, https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/winged-victory-samothrace.

Example 3: Blog Posts

Blog posts are cited similarly to Web pages. You will want to identify the author of the post, the title of the post, the blog name, date, and URL. Look at the top and bottom of the entry to find most of the components. If you are not sure what the title of the blog is, find a Home button or linked logo.

Assemble your citation components in the same order. The only difference in the formatting is that blog titles are italicized. If you would like to clarify that this resource is a blog, you can place the word blog in parentheses after its title. There is also a sponsor for this blog, so that is added after the blog title.

Bibliography Example:
Howard. "Lumia: The Art of Light." Eye Level (blog). Smithsonian American Art Museum, October 4, 2017. https://americanart.si.edu/blog/eye-level/2017/04/56195/lumia-art-light.

Just as in the web page, a note for a blog post will include commas between all components, with the author listed in normal order.

Note Example:

1. Howard, "Lumia: The Art of Light," Eye Level (blog), Smithsonian American Art Museum, October 4, 2017, https://americanart.si.edu/blog/eye-level/2017/04/56195/lumia-art-light.

For multiple citations of the same resource, you may use shortened notes. After the first full note, you may use the author’s last name and a shortened version of the title.

Note Example:

1. Astier Marie-Bénédicte, "The Winged Victory of Samothrace," Louvre, accessed July 3, 2018, https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/winged-victory-samothrace.

2. Marie-Bénédicte, "Winged."

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing Web resources, visit the Santa Fe Library's Chicago Citation Guide. This can be found by visiting the library's website, clicking Guides > Citation Guides and then Chicago Citation Guide. Choose Notes & Bibliography in the left navigation menu.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing Web resources using the Chicago notes and bibliography style. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian.

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