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Tutorials

Video tutorials for library research strategies and resources.

Contents

These tutorials are for the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, published in 2009.

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APA: Citing Books

APA: Citing Books from Lawrence W. Tyree Library on Vimeo.

This video tutorial demonstrates how to cite books using APA format.

This tutorial will show the basics for citing a book, how to cite if there is more than one author or if a book is not a first edition, and how to cite a chapter from an edited book.

Every APA citation in a references list needs four parts: who, when, what, and where. As you go through these examples, you will learn how to identify these four parts and how to place and format them into a proper APA citation.

Example 1: A Book With One Author

For the first example, you will learn how to cite this book: Prisoners of War: A Reference Handbook.

The first step is to identify who wrote this. The author of this book is Arnold Krammer.

To list an author, write the last name, a comma, and the first letter of the first name, followed by a period. If the author has a middle name or middle initial, include the middle initial as well.

Example:
Krammer, A.

Next, identify when this book was written. In this case, you will need to open the book and look inside (usually on the back of the title page) to find the date, 2008.

List the date after the author, in parentheses, followed by a period.

Example:
Krammer, A. (2008).

Next, identify what this title is. The cover shows the title is Prisoners of War: A Reference Handbook. Even though there is no colon on the front page, A Reference Handbook is in a smaller font. This shows that it is the subtitle, and should be separated from the title with a colon.

List the title of the book after the date, in italics. Make sure you only capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (which comes after the colon), and any proper nouns.

Example:
Krammer, A. (2008). Prisoners of war: A reference handbook.

The last information you need is the where. In this case, you need the publisher and the publication city and state. Opening this book to its title page shows that the publisher is Praeger Security International, and the publication location is Westport, CT. You only need to provide the first city.

Type the city, a comma, and then the state using the two-letter postal abbreviation. Then type a colon, followed by the name of the publisher, and end your citation with a period. This concludes the book's citation.

Example:
Krammer, A. (2008). Prisoners of war: A reference handbook. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

If you refer to a work in your paper, either by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include an in-text parenthetical citation. There are a number of ways to do this. In this example, a signal phrase is used to introduce a direct quote. Note that the author’s name is given in the text, and the publication date and page number(s) are enclosed in parentheses at the beginning and end of the sentence.

Example:
As Krammer (2008) writes, “The history of the prisoner of war is as old as the history of warfare and certainly as brutal” (p. 1).

Example 2: Multiple Authors; Editions

For this next book, there are two authors: Kenneth D. Wald and Allison Calhoun-Brown. You can also obtain the date, the title, and the publication information from the book, using the steps illustrated in the first example. Note that this book is a fifth edition; you will need to include that information in your citation as well.

When citing multiple authors, list the first author as normal, followed by a comma, an &, and then the second author. Note that the first author has a middle initial, so this is included. The edition is placed right after the title but before the period. Type 5th ed. within parentheses, and place a period at the end.

Example:
Wald, K. D., & Calhoun-Brown, A. (2007). Religion and politics in the United States (5th ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Example 3: A Chapter in an Edited Book

In this example, the entire book is overseen by editors, but each chapter has a different author. If you are only using information from a single chapter, you will need to cite it a certain way.

First, find the general information for this book, as demonstrated in the previous examples. Then you need to find the author, title, and page numbers of the chapter you are citing.

To cite, list the author of the chapter first, followed by the date and the title of the chapter. Note that the title of the chapter is not in italics. Then type the word In, and list the editors of the book, with the initials first. At the end of their names, list Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. Then, type a comma, the title of the book, and include the page numbers in parentheses. End with the publication information.

Example:
Landes, D. (2000). Culture makes almost all the difference. In L. E. Harrison & S. P. Huntington (Eds.), Culture matters: How values shape human progress (pp. 2-13). New York, NY: Basic Books.

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing books, visit the Santa Fe Library’s APA Citations research guide. This can be found by visiting the library’s website, clicking Guides > Citation Guides and then APA Citation Guide.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing books using APA. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian:

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
sfcollege.edu/library

APA Citing eBooks

APA: Citing eBooks from Lawrence W. Tyree Library on Vimeo.

This video tutorial demonstrates how to cite eBooks using APA format.

This tutorial will show how to cite an eBook from a library database and how to cite a downloaded eBook such as a Kindle eBook.

Every APA citation in a references list needs four parts: who, when, what, and where. As you go through these examples, you will identify these four parts and format them into a proper APA citation.

Example 1: An eBook from a Database

For the first example, you will learn how to cite an eBook from a library database. Library eBooks can be found and accessed through the library catalog. To learn how to access and read eBooks, you may view our tutorial, located on the Tutorials page.

Click the Read Online box and scroll to the title page to obtain information about the book.

The first step is to identify who wrote the eBook. The author of this book is Stephen C. Meyer.

To list an author, write the last name, a comma, and the first letter of the first name, followed by a period. If the author has a middle name or middle initial, include the middle initial as well.

Example:
Meyer, S. C.

Next, identify when this book was written. If this information is not available on the title page, look for it on the next page. This book was published in 2015.

List the date after the author, in parentheses, followed by a period.

Example:
Meyer, S. C. (2015).

Next, identify what the book’s title is. The title page shows the title is Epic Sound: Music in Postwar Hollywood Biblical Films. Even though there is no colon on the title page, Music in Postwar Hollywood Biblical Films is smaller; this shows that it is the subtitle and should be separated from the title with a colon.  

List the title of the book after the date, in italics. Make sure you only capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (which comes after the colon), and any proper nouns. In this case, the words Epic, Music, Hollywood, and Biblical are capitalized.

Example:
Meyer, S. C. (2015). Epic sound: Music in postwar Hollywood Biblical films.

The last information you need is where the book is located. In this case, you need the homepage of the company who provides access to this database. Look in the address bar to find the main URL. The URL is proquest.com; you should convert the hyphen to a period. You may also see eBooks from ebscohost.com. Please note that eBook citations in APA do not include the publishing city or publisher.

Type the words Retrieved from and then provide the URL of the eBook company’s homepage. There is no period after the URL. This completes the eBook citation.

Example:
Meyer, S. C. (2015). Epic sound: Music in postwar Hollywood Biblical films. Retrieved from http://www.proquest.com

If you refer to a work in your paper, either by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include an in-text parenthetical citation. A parenthetical citation consists of the author’s last name, the publication date, and page or pages that the information comes from.

Example:
Meyer (2015, p. 116) expounds on the idea that Americans may be filling the role of the ancient Hebrews within Biblical epic films.

Example 2: A Downloaded eBook

In this example, we will cite an eBook that is downloaded onto a Kindle Fire. You will need all the same information as before: the author, date, title, and URL of the company providing the eBook (in this case, Amazon).

The other element that needs to be included is a description of the eBook version. In this case, the eBook is the Kindle Fire version, and that description will be placed in square brackets after the title, immediately preceding the period.

Example:
Marable, M. (2011). Malcolm X: A life of reinvention [Kindle Fire version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

Some eBooks will not have page numbers, making it difficult to accurately provide in-text citations. If there are no page numbers, you can describe the location of the information you are using based on the chapter, paragraph number, or heading.

Example:
Manning (2011) asserts that “[o]n the eve of America’s entry into World War I, black American political culture was largely divided into two ideological camps: accommodationists and liberal reformers” (Chapter 1, para. 7).

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing an eBook, visit the Santa Fe Library’s APA Citations research guide. This can be found by visiting the library’s website, clicking Guides > Citation Guides and then APA Citation Guide.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing eBooks using APA. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian:

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
sfcollege.edu/library

APA: Citing Videos

APA: Citing Videos from Lawrence W. Tyree Library on Vimeo.

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite videos using the APA citation style.

Every APA citation in a references list needs four parts: who, when, what, and where. As you go through these examples, you will learn how to identify these four parts and how to place and format them into a proper APA citation.

Example 1: A DVD

For the first example, you will learn how to cite a physical DVD. You may also use the same concepts to cite a VHS or Blu-Ray disc.

The first step is to identify who is responsible for the video. In this case, you should look for the producer(s). You can find the producers on the DVD case, in the library catalog record, or by looking on IMDB.com, under Full Cast and Crew.

List all producers with their last names, a comma, and the initials. Place a comma between each producer, and type an ampersand (&) before the last producer. After the names, type Producer or Producers in parentheses, followed by a period.

Example:
Marson, E., Olson, S., & Soechtig, S. (Producers).

Next, identify when this DVD was published. Be sure to use the release date of the DVD, not the original date that a movie may have been released in theaters. You can find this on the DVD case or in the library catalog record.

List the date after the producer statement, in parentheses, followed by a period.

Example:
Marson, E., Olson, S., & Soechtig, S. (Producers). (2014).

Next, identify what the title of the video is. This title is Fed Up.

List the title of the DVD after the date, in italics. Make sure you only capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (which comes after a colon), and any proper nouns. Then, in square brackets, list the format of the video, such as DVD, VHS, or Blu-Ray, and end with a period.

Example:
Marson, E., Olson, S., & Soechtig, S. (Producers). (2014). Fed up [DVD].

Finally, you should provide where the video may be obtained. This should be an official site that provides an option to order the video. You will need the URL of this site.

Type the words Available from, followed by the URL. You do not need to include a period at the end. This completes your citation.

Example:
Marson, E., Olson, S., & Soechtig, S. (Producers). (2014). Fed up [DVD]. Available from http://fedupmovie.com

Example 2: A Streaming Video

Streaming videos may be found through the library’s Films on Demand database, or through another streaming service, such as Netflix. These are videos that you watch entirely online.

To begin, you should try to identify the producers, as with the DVD example. However, if you are unable to find this information, as with many of the Films on Demand videos, begin with the title of the video.

List the title of the video, in italics, paying close attention to capitalization. Then, in square brackets, type Streaming video and end with a period.

Example:
Diesel engine technology [Streaming video].

Next, identify the date of the video. In Films on Demand, use the copyright date.

List the date in parentheses, followed by a period.

Example:
Diesel engine technology [Streaming video]. (2015).

Finally, you need the homepage of the company who provides access to this video. Look in the address bar to find the main URL. This URL is films.com; you may also use netflix.com, amazon.com, or another streaming video homepage.

Type the words Retrieved from and then provide the URL of the streaming video company’s homepage. Please note there is no period after the URL. This completes the streaming video citation.

Example:
Diesel engine technology [Streaming video]. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.films.com

Example 3: YouTube Video

This example will show you to cite an online video, such as a YouTube video or TED talk.

All YouTube videos have a user name (in this case, Grammar Girl). This is the author of the video. If a real name is associated with the video, you should use that.

List the author, either by the real name or the user name, listed exactly as it appears on YouTube. If you have both, list the real name and then the user name in square brackets. Otherwise, just use the user name.

Example:
Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl].

Next, identify the date that this video was uploaded. This can be found underneath the user name.

List the entire date in parentheses, starting with the year, a comma, and then the month and day. End with a period.

Example:
Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2010, October 20).

Next, identify the title of the video, as listed in YouTube.

List the title of the video after the date, in italics, paying close attention to capitalization. Then, in square brackets, type Video file and end with a period.

Example:
Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2010, October 20). Where do periods go in quotations? [Video file].

The last piece of information you need is the URL of the video. This can be found in the address bar, or you can click Share and use the URL located there.

Add the URL to the citation after the words Retrieved from to complete the citation.

Example:
Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2010, October 20). Where do periods go in quotations? [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/XnfMb0o9bhw

For in-text citations with videos, use the producer or user name as the author, along with the date. Instead of a page number, you may choose to provide a timestamp to aid your readers in locating the same information.

Example:
Fogarty (2010, 0:30) states that the rule for periods is “inside the U.S., inside the quotation marks.”

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing videos, visit the Santa Fe Library’s APA Citations research guide. This can be found by visiting the library’s website, clicking Guides > Citation Guides and then APA Citation Guide.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing videos using APA. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian:

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
sfcollege.edu/library

APA: Citing Journal Articles

APA: Citing Journal Articles from Lawrence W. Tyree Library on Vimeo.

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite journal articles using APA format.

Every APA citation in a references list needs four parts: who, when, what, and where. As you go through these examples, you will learn how to identify these four parts and how to place and format them into a proper APA citation.

Example 1: A Print Journal Article

For the first example, you will learn how to cite a journal article that you found in a print journal.

The first step is to identify who wrote this article. There are two authors listed: Alex J. Bowers and Ryan Sprott.

To list an author, write the last name, a comma, and the first letter of the first name, followed by a period. If the author has a middle name or middle initial, include the middle initial as well. A second author will follow after a comma and an ampersand (&), in the same format.

Example:
Bowers, A. J., & Sprott, R.

Next, identify when this article was published. For journal articles, you only need the year. In this case, this article was published in 2012. You can typically find the date at the top of the article, or on the cover of the journal.

List the date after the authors, in parentheses, followed by a period.

Example:
Bowers, A. J., & Sprott, R. (2012).

Next, identify what the title of the article is. The title will usually be at the very top of the article, in a larger size font.

List the title of the article after the date. Make sure you only capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (which comes after the colon), and any proper nouns. In this title, only the words Examining and A are capitalized.

Example:
Bowers, A. J., & Sprott, R. (2012). Examining the multiple trajectories associated with dropping out of high school: A growth mixture model analysis.

The last information you need is where you can find the article. In this case, you need the title of the journal, along with the volume, issue (sometimes called number), and page numbers of the article. Usually this information can be found on the cover of the journal, on the table of contents, or at the top of the article. For the page numbers, you should look at the first and last pages of the article.

Type the journal title, in italics, capitalizing all major words, a comma, the volume, also in italics, the number or issue in parentheses, a comma, and then the page numbers of the article. This concludes the citation.

Example:
Bowers, A. J., & Sprott, R. (2012). Examining the multiple trajectories associated with dropping out of high school: A growth mixture model analysis. The Journal of Educational Research, 105(3), 176-195.

If you refer to a work in your paper, either by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include an in-text parenthetical citation. There are a number of ways to do this. In this example, a signal phrase is used to introduce a direct quote. Note that the author’s name is given in the text, and the publication date and page number(s) are enclosed in parentheses at the beginning and end of the sentence.

Example:
Bowers & Sprott (2012) claim that “students’ dropping out of high schools in the United States is a well known and pervasive problem” (p. 176).

Example 2: A Journal Article Found Online with a DOI

Often, you will find journal articles online using the library’s databases or other online resources. This article was found online using the database Academic Search Complete. On the left is the article’s record, and on the right is the article itself.

Most of the information you need to cite an article can be found in the database’s record. Look for the title at the top and the information for the when and the where in the line that says Source.

Because this is article is found online, you need one more element. You need the DOI, which stands for Digital Object Identifier. A DOI can be found in the article’s record, or sometimes on the first page of the article.

All the elements of the journal article will be cited just like the first example. The DOI will be listed at the very end, after https://doi.org. You do not need a period after the DOI.

Example:
Confino, A. (2012). Miracles and snow in Palestine and Israel: Tantura, a history of 1948. Israel Studies, 17(2), 25-61. https://doi.org/10.2979/israelstudies.17.2.25

Example 3: A Journal Article Found Online Without a DOI

Not all journal articles will have a DOI. If you have looked through the article and database record carefully and cannot find one, you will need to give the URL of the journal’s homepage. First, make sure you know in which journal the article is published. This article is published in AANA Journal.

Next, go to a search engine such as Google, and enter the journal’s name. You are looking for the URL, or web address, of the official homepage for the journal. In this case, the URL is displayed in green.

This article has eight listed authors. APA tells you that you only have to list the first six authors, give three ellipsis points (. . .), and then list the last author.

Cite the article as normal, but instead of a DOI, type Retrieved from and give the URL of the journal’s homepage. Do not a put a period after the URL.

Example:
Penprase, B., Mileto, L., Bittinger, A., Hranchook, A., Atchley, J. A., Bergakker, S., . . . Franson, H. (2012). The use of high-fidelity simulation in the admissions process: One nurse anesthesia program's experience. AANA Journal80(1), 43-48. Retrieved from http://www.aana.com/newsandjournal/Pages/aanajournalonline.aspx

For any work with more than five authors, when you use an in-text citation, you only need to give the first author’s last name and then type et al. which means "and all the rest."

Example:
“Stimulation has been successfully used in healthcare for skills attainment and master, promotion of safety in the workplace, teamwork, and collaboration” (Penprase et al., 2012, pp. 43-44).

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing journal articles, visit the Santa Fe Library’s APA Citations research guide. This can be found by visiting the library’s website, clicking Guides > Citation Guides and then APA Citation Guide.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing journal articles using APA. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian:

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
sfcollege.edu/library

APA: Citing Web Resources

APA: Citing Web Resources from Lawrence W. Tyree Library on Vimeo.

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite Web resources using the APA citation style.

Every APA citation in a references list needs four parts: who, when, what, and where. As you go through these examples, you will learn how to identify these four parts and how to place and format them into a proper APA citation.

Example 1: A Web Page

For the first example, you will learn how to cite a Web page.

The first step is to identify who wrote this Web page. While resources are often written by specific people, sometimes an entire organization is the author. In this case, since there is no specific author’s name, the author is Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

To list a specific author, write the last name, a comma, and the initials, followed by a period. For corporate authors, however, simply list the name of the organization, capitalizing all important words. End with a period.

Example:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Next, identify when this Web page was published. Dates are usually found near the top or the bottom of the page. In this case, there are two dates given: a review date and a date the page was last updated. Sometimes there will also be a copyright date. In this case, you should use the update date, since that indicates the last time the content was changed.

List the date after the author, in parentheses, followed by a period. Unless an item is a newspaper, newsletter, or magazine article or a blog post, you only need to provide the year.

Example:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017).

Next, identify what this page is; in this case, what is the title of the page? The title will usually be above the text, in a larger size font. In this case, the title is Foodborne Illnesses and Germs. While there is a heading that says "Food Safety," this refers to a section within the website, and is not the title of this page.

List the title of the article after the date. Make sure you only capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (which comes after a colon), and any proper nouns. Since this page is part of a larger work, the title is not italicized.

Example:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Foodborne illnesses and germs.

The last information you need is the where—that is, where can you find it? For Web pages, this is the URL, or Web address. You can find this in the address bar at the top of the browser.

Type the words Retrieved from, followed by the URL. You do not need to include a period at the end. This completes your citation.

Example:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Foodborne illnesses and germs. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/foodborne-germs.html

If you refer to a work in your paper, either by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include an in-text parenthetical citation. There are a number of ways to do this. In this example, a signal phrase is used to introduce a direct quote. Note that the author’s name is given in the text, and the publication date and location are enclosed in parentheses at the beginning and end of the sentence. Since there are no page numbers, you should describe where the information is located, either by paragraph number or section.

Example:
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) "estimate that each year 48 million people get sick from a foodborne illness" (sidebar).

Example 2: Missing Information

Sometimes a Web page may not provide all of the information you need for a citation. This example shows how to cite a Web page with no author and no date. Please keep in mind that if you are unable to determine who wrote a Web page, this may not be an acceptable resource for academic research.

Examining this page closely does not reveal an author. Authors may be listed at the top, bottom, in the footer, or on an About or Contact Us page. An organization or entity may also serve as an author. In this case, however, no author is given. Please note that if you are using a resource without any authorship, you should think critically about whether it should be used in a college-level paper.

Because there is no author, the citation will begin with the title. The title of this page is Appeal to Consequences.

List the title of the Web page, paying close attention to capitalization. End the title with a period.

Example:
Appeal to consequences.

In this page, careful examination does not reveal a date. There is only a general copyright date, which should not be used, as that frequently applies to the entire website.

Because there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d. in place of a year. This stands for no date.

Example:
Appeal to consequences. (n.d.).

Finally, add the URL after the words Retrieved from to complete the citation.

Example:
Appeal to consequences. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.logicalfallacies.info/relevance/appeals/appeal-to-consequences/

For in-text citations with no author, give the first two or three words of the title in quotation marks, capitalizing major words. If there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d.

Example:
The appeal to consequences logical fallacy is “an attempt to motivate belief with an appeal either to the good consequences of believing or the bad consequences of disbelieving" (“Appeal to Consequences,” n.d.).

Example 3: A Government Document

Since online government documents and reports are often stand-alone works, their citations differ slightly from other Web pages.

In addition to the standard citation elements, you must identify the agency name and the report number. Careful examination of this document allows us to identify the author, date, title, report number, publisher, and URL.

This is a stand-alone document, so the title is italicized. The report number (or in this case, the working paper number) comes after the title in parentheses. The name of the publisher or agency is also listed after Retrieved from. If the publisher is also the author, you may omit the publisher’s name from the retrieval statement.

Example:
Haugen, S. E. (2009). Measures of labor underutilization from the current population survey (Working Paper No. 424). Retrieved from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics website: http://www.bls.gov/osmr/pdf/ec090020.pdf

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing Web resources, visit the Santa Fe Library’s APA Citations research guide. This can be found by visiting the library’s website, clicking Guides > Citation Guides and then APA Citation Guide.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing Web resources using APA. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian:

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
sfcollege.edu/library