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Video tutorials for library research strategies and resources.

MLA: Citing Books

MLA: Citing Books from Lawrence W. Tyree Library on Vimeo.

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite books using MLA style.

In this tutorial, you will learn the basics for citing a book, how to cite if there is more than one author or if a book is not a first edition, and how to cite a chapter from an edited book.

MLA citations may include a variety of components. Sources may be part of a larger source, called a container. Examples of containers may be a database, website, or a book. The following examples will show you how to identify these components and how to place and format them into a proper MLA citation.

Example 1: A Book With One Author

For the first example, you will learn how to cite this book: Visual Shock: A History of Art Controversies in American Culture.

To locate the information you need to cite the book, turn to the title page. The first piece of information you need is the author of the book. The author of this book is Michael Kammen.

To list an author, type the name in reverse order. Type the last name, a comma, and the first name, followed by a period. If the author's middle name or initial is given, include it after the first name.

Example:
Kammen, Michael.

Next, identify the title of the book. The title page shows the title is Visual Shock: A History of Art Controversies in American Culture. Even though there is no colon on the title page, A History of Art Controversies in American Culture is in a smaller font; this shows that it is the subtitle and should be separated from the title with a colon.

List the title of the book, in italics, after the author. Capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (which comes after the colon), and all important words. Place a period after the title.

Example:
Kammen, Michael. Visual Shock: A History of Art Controversies in American Culture.

Finally, identify the publication information. This is the name of the publisher and the year it was published. If this information is not available on the title page, look for it on the verso, which is the back of the title page. This book was published by Alfred A. Knopf in 2006.

The publisher's name, in this case Alfred A. Knopf, is listed after the title. If the word Press is part of the publisher's name, abbreviate it to P. The publisher's name is followed by a comma and the year the book was published. Place a period after the year. This completes the citation.

Example:
Kammen, Michael. Visual Shock: A History of Art Controversies in American Culture. Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.

If you refer to a work in your paper, by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include an in-text parenthetical citation. There are a number of ways to do this. In this example, a signal phrase is used to introduce a direct quote. Note that the author's name is given in the text, and the page number is enclosed in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Example:
Americans have increasingly shown their support of art through museum visits. As reported by Kammen, "Attendance at art museums rose from 22 million per year in 1962 to well over 100 million in 2000" (304).

Example 2: Multiple Authors; Editions

In this example, there are two authors (Warren Chappell and Robert Bringhurst). You can obtain the title and the publication information from the book, using the steps illustrated in the first example. Note that this book is a second edition. You will need to include that information in your citation.

When citing two authors, list the first author's name in reverse order, followed by a comma and the word and. Then list the next author. The second author's name is not reversed; list it in normal order. If an item has three or more authors, list only the first author's name, followed by et al. The edition follows the period after the title. Type the edition number followed by ed., then a comma and continue on to the publication information.

Example:
Chappell, Warren, and Robert Bringhurst. A Short History of the Printed World. 2nd ed., Hartley & Marks, 1999.

Example 3: A Chapter in an Edited Book

In this example, the entire book is overseen by editors, but each chapter has a different author. If you are only using information from a single chapter, you will need to cite it a certain way.

First, find the general information for this book, as demonstrated in the previous examples. This is the container. Note that the editors' names will be in place of the authors' names for the book as a whole. Then find the author, title and page numbers of the chapter you are citing.

To cite, list the author of the chapter first, followed by the title of the chapter. Note that the title of the chapter is enclosed in quotation marks. For this example, the first word of the title is italicized since it is the title of a book, but the rest of the chapter title is not italicized. The chapter title is followed by the book title, and then the words edited by and the editors' names. List their names in normal order (not reversed). The page numbers of the chapter are listed after the date.

Example:
Nelson, Claudia. “Jade and the Tomboy Tradition.” The Oxford Handbook of Children's Literature, edited by Julia L. Mickenberg and Lynne Vallone, Oxford UP, 2011, pp. 497-517.

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing books, visit the Tyree Library's MLA Citations guide. This can be found by visiting the Library's website, clicking Guides, Citation Guides, and then MLA Citation Guide.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing books using MLA. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian:

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
Building Y, NW Campus
sfcollege.edu/library

MLA: Citing eBooks

MLA: Citing eBooks from Lawrence W. Tyree Library on Vimeo.

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite eBooks using the MLA citation style.

In this tutorial, you will learn how to cite an eBook from a library database and how to cite a downloaded eBook such as a Kindle eBook.

MLA citations may include a variety of components. Sources may be part of a larger source, called a container. Examples of containers may be a database, website, or a book. The following examples will show you how to identify these components and how to place them into a proper MLA citation.

Example 1: An eBook from a Database

Once you have found and opened an eBook, scroll to the title page to obtain information about the book. The first piece of information you need is the author of the book. The author of this book is Stephen C. Meyer.

To list an author, type the name in reverse order. Type the last name, a comma, and the first name, followed by a period. If the author's middle name or initial is given, include it after the first name.

Example:
Meyer, Stephen C.

Next, identify the title of the book. The title page shows the title is Epic Sound: Music in Postwar Hollywood Biblical Films. Even though there is no colon on the title page, Music in Postwar Hollywood Biblical Films is smaller; this shows that it is the subtitle and should be separated from the title with a colon.

List the title of the book, in italics, after the author. Capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, which comes after the colon, and all important words. Place a period after the title.

Example:
Meyer, Stephen C. Epic Sound: Music in Postwar Hollywood Biblical Films.

Next, identify the publication information. This is the name of the publisher and the year it was published.

If this information is not available on the title page, look for it on the next page. This book was published by Indiana University Press in 2015.

Add the publisher's name, a comma, and then the year and a period. If the word University or Press is part of the publisher's name, abbreviate it to U and/or P.

Example:
Meyer, Stephen C. Epic Sound: Music in Postwar Hollywood Biblical Films. Indiana UP, 2015.

When citing an eBook from a database, include the name of the database, which is the container. In this case it is Ebook Central. The name of this database is listed at the top of the screen when viewing the detailed record. Finally, you need the URL of the eBook. In Ebook Central, this can be found in the address bar. Look for a Permalink option within other databases.

In your citation, italicize the database name and follow the name with a comma. Next, provide the URL, removing the initial http://, and end with a period. This concludes the citation.

Example:
Meyer, Stephen C. Epic Sound: Music in Postwar Hollywood Biblical Films. Indiana UP, 2015. Ebook Central, ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/sfcollege-ebooks/detail.action?docID=1809824.

Some scholarly eBooks will have a DOI. This can be found on the title page or the next page. If a DOI is given, use that instead of the URL, using the format doi: and then provide the DOI.

Example:
McGraw, Seamus. Betting the Farm on a Drought. U of Texas P, 2015. Ebook Central, doi:10.7560/756618.

Example 2: A Downloaded eBook

To cite a downloaded eBook, begin your citation as if you were citing a print book. For this example, we will cite the Kindle eBook version of The Great Gatsby.

Navigate to the title page to find the author, title, and publication information. Type the words Kindle ed. and a comma before continuing on to the publisher element.

Example:
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2003.

If you refer to an eBook in your paper, by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or referring to main ideas, you will need to include an in-text parenthetical citation. If the eBook is divided into stable numbered sections like chapters, or uses stable page numbers like in a PDF, then you can include these in your citation. If the eBook lacks stable numbering, then only include the author.

Example:
Fitzgerald draws a stark parallel between the glamorous life led by the main characters and the decay of the valley of the ashes (ch. 2).

For more example and additional situations you may encounter when citing eBooks, visit the Tyree Library's MLA Citations research guide. This can be found by visiting the Library;s website, clicking Guides, Citation Guides, and then MLA Citation Guide.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing eBooks using MLA. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian:

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
Building Y, NW Campus
sfcollege.edu/library

MLA: Citing Videos

MLA: Citing Videos from Lawrence W. Tyree Library on Vimeo.

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite videos using MLA style.

In this tutorial, you will learn how to cite a DVD, a streaming video, and an online video, such as YouTube videos.

MLA citations may include a variety of components. Sources may be part of a larger source, called a container. Examples of containers may be a database, website, or a book. The following examples will show you how to identify these components and how to place and format them into a proper MLA citation.

Example 1: A DVD

For the first example, you will learn how to cite a physical DVD. You may also use the same concepts to cite a VHS or Blu-Ray video.

The first step is to identify the main contributor for this video. This may be a director or producer, but it could be a host or an actor, depending on what your research is focusing on. You can find this information in the credits, on the DVD case, or by looking on IMDB.com, under Full Cast & Crew.

To list a contributor, type the name in reverse order. Type the last name, a comma, and then the first name. If the contributor's middle name or initial is given, include it after the first name. Type a comma and then indicate the role this contributor played. Place a period after the role.

Example:
Soechtig, Stephanie, director.

Next, identify the title of the video. This title is Fed Up.

List the title of the DVD after the main contributor, in italics. Capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, which comes after a colon, and all other important words. End with a period.

Example:
Soechtig, Stephanie, director. Fed Up.

If there are other contributors you wish to highlight, you may do so now. For instance, an actor, narrator, or host may be included. You may omit this component if it is not needed.

Describe the role, followed by the name of the additional contributor, written in normal order—that is, first name and then last name. Examples include Narrated by, Hosted by, or Performance by. End with a period.

Example:
Soechtig, Stephanie, director. Fed Up. Narrated by Katie Couric.

Next, identify the publisher of the film. This is usually a production company or film studio. There can sometimes be several companies listed. IMDb.com can help identify the roles each company played. If they appear to have equal responsibility, include them both.

List the publisher, followed by a comma. If you are listing two companies, separate them with a forward slash.

Example:
Soechtig, Stephanie, director. Fed Up. Narrated by Katie Couric. Atlas Films,

Finally, identify when this DVD was published. Be sure to use the release date of the DVD, not the original date that a film may have been released in theaters. You can also find this information on the DVD case.

List the date after the producer statement, followed by a period. This completes the citation.

Example:
Soechtig, Stephanie, director. Fed Up. Narrated by Katie Couric. Atlas Films, 2014.

Example 2: A Streaming Video

Streaming videos may be found through the Library's Films on Demand database, or through another streaming service, such as Netflix or Hulu. These are subscription videos that you watch entirely online. To begin, identify the main contributor, as with the DVD example. If you are unable to identify a contributor (such as a director or host), begin with the title of the video.

List the title of the video, in italics. Capitalize all important words and follow with a period.

Example:
Shakespeare on the Silver Screen.

If there are no additional contributors, as detailed in the DVD example, identify the publisher and date of the video. In Films on Demand, use the producer for the publisher.

List the publisher, followed by a comma, and then the date. End with a period.

Example:
Shakespeare on the Silver Screen. NBD Television Limited, 2000.

Finally, you need the service providing the video and the URL. In this case, the service is the database Films on Demand. For the URL, look for the Record URL, under Share and the Embed/Link tab.

List the name of the database, Films on Demand, in italics. Type a comma, then give the URL, omitting the beginning http://. Type a period to complete the citation.

Example:
Shakespeare on the Silver Screen. NBD Television Limited, 2000. Films on Demand, fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=99198&xtid=12083.

Example 3: A YouTube Video

This example will show you to cite an online video, such as a YouTube video or TED talk. First, determine whether the user who uploaded the video is the creator. Some videos will be uploaded by people who did not participate in the original content. If the user is the creator, list them as the author. Otherwise, move on to the title. In this example, it's doubtful that the user created this historical video. Instead, move on to identify the title, Basic Physics of an Atomic Bomb (1950).

Type the title, in quotation marks, ending in a period. Capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, which comes after a colon, and all other important words. You may need to fix some of the formatting. In this case, you can eliminate the '(1950)' and add in a 'The' to make the title match what appears in the video. After the title of the video, type YouTube, in italics, followed by a comma.

Example:
“The Basic Physics of an Atomic Bomb.” YouTube,

Next identify who uploaded the video. If the user who uploaded the video is the creator, omit this component and move on to the next one. This user is Nuclear Vault.

Type the words uploaded by and then provide the user name. Capitalize the user name as you would a regular name.

Example:
“The Basic Physics of an Atomic Bomb” YouTube, uploaded by Nuclear Vault,

Next, identify the date that this video was uploaded. This can be found underneath the video title.

List the entire date in the following format: Day Month Year. Abbreviate months to the first three letters, with the exception of May, June, and July. Type a comma after the date.

Example:
“The Basic Physics of an Atomic Bomb.” YouTube, uploaded by Nuclear Vault, 25 Dec. 2018,

The last piece of information you need is the URL of the video. This can be found in the address bar, or you can click Share and use the URL located there.

Add the URL to the citation after the last comma, omitting the http://, to complete the citation.

Example:
“The Basic Physics of an Atomic Bomb.” YouTube, uploaded by Nuclear Vault, 25 Dec. 2018, www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQ0wwCb0c8Q.

For in-text citations with videos, use the contributor as the author. If there is no contributor, use the first few words of the title, formatted as it is in the Works Cited page. Instead of a page number, you may choose to provide a timestamp to aid your readers in locating the same information.

Example:
Shakespeare asserts that actors and playwrights in Shakespeare's times were considered “rogues and vagabonds” (00:09:52).

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing videos, visit the Tyree Library’s MLA Citations research guide. This can be found by visiting the Library’s website, clicking Guides, Citation Guides, and then MLA Citation Guide.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing videos using MLA. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian;

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
Building Y, NW Campus
sfcollege.edu/library

MLA: Citing Journal Articles

MLA: Citing Journal Articles from Lawrence W. Tyree Library on Vimeo.

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite journal articles using MLA style.

In this tutorial, you will learn the basics for citing a print journal article, an online journal article, and a journal article found through a library database.

MLA citations may include a variety of components. Sources may be part of a larger source, called a container. Examples of containers may be a database, website, or a book. The following examples will show you how to identify these components and how to place and format them into a proper MLA citation.

Example 1: A Print Journal Article

For the first example, you will learn how to cite a journal article that you found in print.

The first step is to identify the author of the article. The author of this article is Jonathan Robins.

To list an author, type the name in reverse order. Type the last name, a comma, and the first name, followed by a period. If the author's middle name or initial is given, include it after the first name.

Example:
Robins, Jonathan.

Next, identify the title of the article. The title will usually be at the top of the article, in a font that is larger than the text.

Type the title of the article, enclosed in quotation marks, after the author. Capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, which comes after a colon, and all important words. Place a period after the title, but within the quotation marks.

Example:
Robins, Jonathan. “Oil Bloom: Agriculture, Chemistry, and the Rise of Global Plant Fat Industries, ca. 1850-1920.”

Next, identify the publication information. This includes the title of the journal; the volume, issue, and page numbers; and the year of publication. The issue may be referred to as the number. Usually this information can be found on the cover of the journal, on the table of contents, or at the top of the article. For the page numbers, you should look at the first and last pages of the article.

After the article title, type the journal title, in italics. Then, type a comma, the abbreviation vol., the volume number, a comma, the abbreviation no. and then the issue number. Type a comma, then give the year of publication. Type another comma, the abbreviation pp. and the page numbers. End this section with a period. This completes the citation.

Example:
Robins, Jonathan. “Oil Bloom: Agriculture, Chemistry, and the Rise of Global Plant Fat Industries, ca. 1850-1920.” Journal of World History, vol. 29, no. 3, 2018, pp. 313-342.

If you refer to a work in your paper, by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include an in-text parenthetical citation. There are a number of ways to do this. In this example, a signal phrase is used to introduce a direct quote. The author's name is included in the text, and the page number is enclosed in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Example:
Robins introduces the topic of global plant fat industries by noting “Fats were important both as foods and as industrial raw materials throughout history, used for lighting, soap, grease, and a host of other purposes” (314).

Example 2: A Journal Article Found Online

You may encounter full-text journal articles while searching on the Web. This article is from the online journal Australian Humanities Review.

Look for the information needed to cite the article at the top of the page or on the journal's table of contents page. In this example, this journal does not have volumes. Instead there are only issues. Also, since the articles are presented as HTML files, there are no page numbers.

  • Author: John O’Carroll
  • Article Title: Totaram’s Ghost
  • Journal Title: Australian Humanities Review
  • Issue: 52
  • Pages: none
  • Year of Publication: 2012

An article found online should be cited like a print journal. Since this journal does not have a volume number, the issue number stands alone. Since this article does not have page numbers, skip that element. Add the URL, omitting the http://. Place a period after the URL to complete the citation.

Example:
O’Carroll, John. “Totaram’s Ghost.” Australian Humanities Review, no. 52, 2012. australianhumanitiesreview.org/2012/05/01/totarams-ghost/.

Example 3: Journal Article from a Library Database

You will usually find journal articles using the Library’s databases. This article was found online using the database Art & Architecture Source.

The information you need to cite an article can be found on the article itself and in the database's record. Look for the title at the top of the record and the publication information in the line labeled Source.

  • Author: Elizabeth Collins Cromley
  • Article Title: Frank Lloyd Wright in the Kitchen
  • Journal Title: Buildings & Landscapes
  • Volume: 19
  • Issue: 1
  • Pages: 18-42
  • Year of Publication: 2012

Since this article is from a library database, you will also need the name of the database. In this case it is Art & Architecture Source. Finally, you will need either a DOI, which is preferred, or a stable URL. If an article has a DOI, it will often be listed on the record or on the first page of the article. Look for stable URLs in the record, or see if there is a Permalink option.

A citation for an article from a database will begin like the previous journal examples. After the page numbers, type the name of the database, in italics, followed by a comma. Then provide the DOI or the stable URL. Omit the http:// from the stable URL. Add a period after the DOI or URL. This completes this citation.

Example:
Cromley, Elizabeth Collins. “Frank Lloyd Wright in the Kitchen.” Buildings & Landscapes, vol. 19, no. 1, 2012, pp. 18-42. Art & Architecture Source, doi:10.1353/bdl.2012.0010.

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing journal articles, visit the Tyree Library's MLA Citations research guide. This can be found by visiting the Library's website, clicking Guides, Citations Guides. and then MLA Citation Guide.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing journal articles using MLA style. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian:

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
Building Y, NW Campus
sfcollege.edu/library

MLA: Citing Web Resources

MLA: Citing Web Resources from Lawrence W. Tyree Library on Vimeo.

This video tutorial will demonstrate how to cite Web resources using the MLA citation style.

In this tutorial, you will learn the basics for citing webpages and blog posts.

MLA citations may include a variety of components. Sources may be part of a larger source, called a container. Examples of containers may be a database, website, or a book. The following examples will show you how to identify these components and how to place and format them into a proper MLA citation.

Example 1: A Webpage

For the first example, you will learn how to cite a web page. A webpage is a single document within a website. The first step is to identify the author of the page. The author may be a person or an organization. The author is usually at the top of the webpage. For this example, the author is Ben S. Austin.

To list an author, type the name in reverse order. Type the last name, a comma, and the first name, followed by a period. If the author's middle name or initial is given, include it after the first name.

Example:
Austin, Ben S.

Next, determine the title of the webpage. The title of the webpage is usually found above the main content in the body of the page. For this webpage, the title is Holocaust Denial: A Brief History.

Type the title of the web page, enclosed in quotation marks, after the author's name. Capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (when a subtitle is given), and all important words. Place a period before the last quotation mark.

Example:
Austin, Ben S.. "Holocaust Denial: A Brief History."

Next, determine the title of the website. The website is the overall container for the page or document you are using. The title of the website is usually found in a prominent place on the page or at the top of the Web browser's screen. For this website, the title is Jewish Virtual Library.

Type the title of the website, in italics, after the title of the webpage. Capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (when a subtitle is given), and all important words. End with a comma.

Example:
Austin, Ben S.. "Holocaust Denial: A Brief History." Jewish Virtual Library,

Next, locate the publication information. For a webpage, the publication information includes the publisher or sponsor of the website, and the date of publication. Look for these elements at the top and bottom of the page. The publisher may also be found on the website's About page. If the publisher is identical to the author, do not include it. The publisher for this example is AICE. The About page for the site shows that AICE stands for American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. There is no publication date listed.

Type the publisher after the website title, if applicable. After the publisher type a comma. Next, include the date of publication. Since there was no date for this webpage, this element will be omitted.

Example:
Austin, Ben S.. "Holocaust Denial: A Brief History." Jewish Virtual Library, American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise,

Finally, locate the URL of the webpage. The URL is found in the address bar of the Web browser.

Type the URL after a comma, omitting the beginning http://. End the citation with a period. With online sources that lack publication dates, you should include a Date Accessed component to the end of the citation. Start with the word Accessed and then in Month Date, Year format type the date you accessed the webpage. End with a period. This concludes the citation.

Example:
Austin, Ben S.. "Holocaust Denial: A Brief History." Jewish Virtual Library, American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/a-brief-history-of-holocaust-denial. Accessed November 11, 2019.

If you refer to a work in your paper by directly quoting, paraphrasing, or by referring to main ideas, you will need to include an in-text parenthetical citation. There are a number of ways to do this. In this example, a signal phrase is used to introduce a direct quote, and the author's name is included in the narrative. If there are no specific page numbers, as in most webpages, use only the author.

Example:
As Austin notes, "The very first Holocaust deniers were the Nazis themselves."

Example 2: A Blog Post

Blog posts follow the same guidelines as webpages. In this example, the title of this blog post is Misty Copeland and the Newness of the Ballerina Body, and it is part of the blog Sociological Images.

For this blog post, the remaining elements required for the citation are located at the top of the post. The publisher can be found at the top in this example, but you may need to look at a copyright statement, the footer, or an About page to identify.

  • Author: Lisa Wade
  • Publication date: April 26, 2016
  • Publisher: The Society Pages

The citation for a blog post follows the structure shown in the previous example. The author is listed first followed by the blog post title, the title of the blog, and the publisher. The date component is listed Day Month Year. Abbreviate all months except for May, June, and July. End with the URL.

Example:
Wade, Lisa. "Misty Copeland and the Newness of the Ballerina Body." Sociological Images, The Society Pages, 26 Apr. 2016, thesocietypages.org/socimages/2016/04/26/misty-copeland-and-the-newness-of-the-ballerina-body/.

If you are missing any information, such as a date or author, simply omit the element and move on to the next part of the citation. In this example, there is no date. Remember that companies or organizations can be authors. The BBC serves as the author for this example.

Example:
BBC. "The Swahili." The Story of Africa, www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/index_section5.shtml. Accessed November 9, 2019.

For more examples and additional situations you may encounter when citing Web resources, visit the Tyree Library’s MLA Citations research guide. This can be found by visiting the Library’s website, clicking Guides, Citation Guides and then MLA Citation Guide.

This concludes the video tutorial on citing Web resources using the MLA citation style. If you still have questions, please contact a librarian:

352-395-5409
reference@sfcollege.edu
Building Y, NW Campus
sfcollege.edu/library