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APA (7th edition) Citation Guide

Webpages / Web Documents

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of page. Website. http://xxxxx

General copyright dates are not sufficient to use as the publication date. If no creation or publication date is given, use n.d. If the author and website are the same, omit the website.

Example 1: Author, No Date

Corcodilos, N. (n.d.). Keep your salary under wraps. Ask the Headhunter. http://www.asktheheadhunter.com/hasalary.htm

(Corcodilos, n.d.)

Example 2: Corporate Author

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010). Facing down PTSD, vet is now soaring high. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/featureArticle_Feb.asp

(U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2010)

Example 3: Multiple Pages from One Website

If you are using multiple pages from one website that all have the same author and date, differentiate the dates with letters. Be sure that the citations are listed alphabetically by webpage title.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014a). Be safe after a hurricane. http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/be-safe-after.asp

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014a)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014b). Make a plan. http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/plan.asp

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b)

If both items have n.d. instead of a year, include a hyphen before the differentiating letter:

Santa Fe College. (n.d.-a). Priority admissions dates. http://www.sfcollege.edu/admissions/index.php?section=priority_dates

(Santa Fe College, n.d.-a)

Santa Fe College. (n.d.-b). SF to UF: A true story. http://www.sfcollege.edu/gators/true-story/index

(Santa Fe College, n.d.-b)

Example 4: No Author

Appeal to authority. (n.d.). Logical Fallacies. https://www.logicalfallacies.org/appeal-to-authority.html

When citing as an in-text citation, you may abbreviate the title to the first few words, in quotations, unless the title is short:

("Appeal to Authority," n.d.)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.16 (examples 111-114); Webpage on a Website References [APA Style]

Entire Websites

Simply give the URL of the website in the text:

The Lawrence W. Tyree Library website (http://www.sfcollege.edu/library) provides many resources for the students and faculty at Santa Fe College.

Source: Publication Manual, 8.22; Whole Website References [APA Style]

Entry in an Online Dictionary

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Entry name. In Title of online dictionary. Retrieved Day Month, Year, from http://xxxxx.

Most online dictionaries will not have a date; include a retrieval date in this case.

Example

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Chapfallen. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/chapfallen

(Merriam-Webster, n.d.)

West, S. (2007). Online bully. In Urban dictionary. https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=online%20bully&defid=2639710#2639710

(West, 2007)

Source: Dictionary Entry References [APA Style]

Entries in Online Encyclopedias

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed.). Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Individual Author

Masolo, D. (2006). African sage philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2008 ed.). Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/african-sage/

(Masolo, 2006)

Example 2: Group Author

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (n.d.) Antisemitism. In Holocaust encyclopedia. Retrieved October 7, 2019, from https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/antisemitism

(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, n.d.)

Note: If the author is the same as the website, omit the website component. If an encyclopedia is continuously updated and does not have an archived version, include the retrieval date.

Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (examples 47-48)

Blog Posts

Template

Author, A. or ScreenName. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog Title. http://xxxxx

Please note that for blogs, the post title is formatted normally and the blog title is italicized.

Example 1: Screen Name

Headsman. (2009, August 17). 1909: Madanlal Dhingra, Indian revolutionary. ExecutedToday.com. http://www.executedtoday.com/2009/08/17/1909-madanlal-dhingra-indian-revolutionary/

(Headsman, 2009)

Example 2: Full Name

Wade, L. (2009, August 7). What makes a person homeless? Sociological Images. http://contexts.org/socimages/2009/08/07/what-makes-a-person-homeless/

(Wade, 2009)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.1 (example 17); Blog Post and Blog Comment References [APA Style]

Government Reports

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx). Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Individual Author

Haugen, S. E. (2009). Measures of labor underutilization from the current population survey (Working Paper No. 424). Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/osmr/pdf/ec090020.pdf

(Haugen, 2009)

Example 2: Organizational Author

For agencies that are part of a hierarchy, you can use the specific agency instead of including the full hierarchy. If you introduce an abbreviation in your first in-text citation, you may use that abbreviation in subsequent citations.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2011). Your guide to anemia (NIH Publication No. 11-7629). http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/blood/anemia-yg.pdf

First Time: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2011)

All Subsequent Times: (NHLBI, 2011)

Note: if the author and website are the same, omit the website.

Example 3: Report Retrieved from Other Site

Matese, M. A. (1997, March). Accountability-based sanctions (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Fact Sheet No. 58). National Criminal Justice Reference Service. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/fs-9758.pdf

(Matese, 1997)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.4 (examples 50-52); Report by a Government Agency References; Report with Individual Authors References [APA Style]

Online Videos (e.g. YouTube, TED)

Use this for videos posted on websites or blogs, such as YouTube, TED, a news website, etc. If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation (see Example 1).

Template

Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Full Name

Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03McKEg9ASA

(Jones, 2009, 1:15)

Example 2: User Name Only

Vercamath. (2011, July 25). Parallel universes explained [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWaB3SksOQU

(Vercamath, 2011)

Example 3: TED Talk

Gavagan, E. (2012, April). A story about knots and surgeons [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/ed_gavagan_a_story_about_knots_and_surgeons

(Gavagan, 2012)

TED. (2016, August 30). Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Un2yBgIAxYs

(TED, 2016)

Note: If citing from the TED website, list the speaker as the author. If citing from YouTube, list TED (or the account) as the author and include the speaker's name in the title.

Sources: Publication Manual, 9.8 and 10.12 (examples 88 and 90); YouTube Video References; TED Talk References [APA Style]

Images

Photograph

You may also need to provide an attribution if you include the image in your paper. See Figures and Images.

Template

Photographer, A. A. (copyright year). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Zemlianichenko, A. (1997). Russian President Boris Yeltsin dancing at a rock concert [Photograph]. The Pulitzer Prizes. https://www.pulitzer.org/winners/alexander-zemlianichenko

(Zemlianichenko, 1997)


Artwork

Template

Artist, A. A. (copyright year). Title of work [Medium: Painting, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.]. Museum, Location. http://xxxxx

Example

Flack, A. (1988). Islandia, goddess of the healing waters [Sculpture]. Harn Museum of Art, Gainesville, FL, United States. http://www.harn.ufl.edu/collections/8_e.html

(Flack, 1988)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (examples 97 & 101); Clip Art or Stock Image References; Artwork References [APA Style]

Online Lecture Notes or PowerPoint Slides

Only include a full reference to lecture notes or class materials that are behind a login screen (such as Canvas) if you are writing for an audience that will be able to retrieve them. Otherwise, cite it as a personal communication.

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides]. Website. http://xxxxx

Examples

Preskill, J. (n.d.). Chapter 4: Quantum entanglement [Lecture notes]. Caltech Particle Theory Group. http://www.theory.caltech.edu/people/preskill/ph229/notes/chap4.pdf

(Preskill, n.d.)

Matthews, D. (2019). [Lecture notes on evaluating Internet resources]. Canvas at Santa Fe College. https://courses.sfcollege.edu/login

(Matthews, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (example 102); Classroom or Intranet ResourcesPowerPoint Slide or Lecture Note References [APA Style]

Fact Sheets & Brochures

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of brochure or fact sheet [Type]. Website. http://xxxxx.

If the author and website names are the same, omit the website component

Example

Cancer Research UK. (2014). World cancer factsheet [Fact sheet]. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/sites/default/files/cs_report_world.pdf

(Cancer Research UK, 2014)

Nissan. (n.d.). 2020 Altima [Brochure]. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from https://www.nissanusa.com/content/dam/Nissan/us/vehicle-brochures/2020/2020-nissan-altima-brochure-en.pdf

(Nissan, n.d.)

Source: Fact Sheet References; Brochure References [APA Style]

Press Releases

Template

Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title of press release [Press release]. http://xxxxx

Example

Santa Fe College. (2010). Film production classes and casting agent coming to SF [Press release]. http://news.sfcollege.edu/read.php/2010/09/03/film-production-classes-and-casting-agent-coming-to-sf.html

(Santa Fe College, 2010)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.4 (example 59); Press Release References [APA Style]

Film or Video Review

Template

Reviewer, A. A. (Year). Title of review [Review of the film Film, by A. A. Director, Dir.]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Barsanti, C. (2011). The Muppets [Review of the film The Muppets, by J Bobin, Dir.]. Filmcritic. http://www.filmcritic.com/reviews/2011/the-muppets/

(Barsanti, 2011)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.7 (examples 67-68)

Online Maps

Template

Author, A. A. (Role). (Year). Title of map [Map]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Wise, G. D. (Cartographer). (1857). Preliminary survey of the mouth of the Apalachicola River, Florida [Map]. University of Florida. http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/maps/MAPFLL018.JPG

(Wise, 1857)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (example 100)

Interviews

Only cite an interview if it is retrievable. If it is a personal interview that is not able to be accessed by the reader, follow the guidelines for personal communication.

Template

Interviewee, A. A. (Year, month day interviewed). Title of interview [Interview]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Miller, C. (2019, October 7). Chanel Miller - Turning her pain into a rallying cry with Know My Name - Extended interview [Interview]. Comedy Central. http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-september-18-2012/salman-rushdie

(Miller, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (example 95)

Wikis

Please note: Wikipedia is a good resource for learning about a topic, but it is usually not an acceptable source to cite in a paper or research project for a class at Santa Fe College. This is due to the fact that it can be very unreliable and is not considered a reputable source.

Template

Title of entry. (Year, Month Day). In Wiki Name. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Wikipedia

Constitution of the United States. (2019, October 7). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constitution_of_the_United_States&oldid=920036236

("Constitution," 2019).

Note: Provide the link to the archived version of the entry you use. Click View history and the time/date corresponding to the entry version you used.

Example 2: Another Wiki

Greek mythology. (2008). In Citizendium. Retrieved August 12, 2019, from http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Greek_mythology

("Greek Mythology," 2008).

Note: If there is no link to an archival version of the page, provide the retrieval date that you accessed the entry.

Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (example 49); Wikipedia Entry References [APA Style]

Facebook

Facebook Page

Template

Author. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx

Example

Florida Memes. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/morefloridamemes/

(Florida Memes, n.d.)


Specific Posting On Facebook Profile or Page

If you cite a particular post, you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.

  • Include the author name as written (name or an organization).
  • You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
  • Provide the entire posting, up to the first 20 words.
  • Include the URL of the specific post if possible.

Template

Author. (Year, Month Day). Text of Facebook post, up to 20 words [Image attached] [Status update/Video/Infographic/Image]. Facebook. http://xxxxx

Example

CNN. (2013, October 22). Could a mouse's back potentially hold the cure for baldness? A breakthrough may be on the horizon, researchers say. http://on.cnn.com/1cTftYk [Thumbnail link] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/cnn/posts/10152027847166509

(CNN, 2013)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.15 (examples 105-106); Facebook References [APA Style]

Twitter

Twitter Profile

Template

Author, A. A. [@twittername]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx

Example

Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://twitter.com/neiltyson

(Tyson, 2019)


Tweet

If you cite a particular post ('tweet'), you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.

  • Include the Twitter username as written (be it a name or an organization).
  • You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
  • Since tweets are limited to 140 characters, you should include the entire text, including URLs.
  • The URL should be for the specific tweet, not the entire feed.
  • Replicate emojis if possible.
  • If an image or video are included, add square brackets before the Tweet indication.

Template

Author, A. A.. [@twittername]. (Year, Month Day). Full text of tweet [Image attached/Thumbnail with link attached/etc] [Tweet]. Twitter. http://xxxxx

Example

Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Twitter. http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366

(Obama, 2009)

Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (2019, July 15). I love the smell of the universe in the morning [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/neiltyson/status/1179714452553420802

(Tyson, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 103-104); Twitter References [APA Style]

Instagram

Template

Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of caption [Photograph(s)/Video(s)]. Instagram. http://xxxxx

Example

Tyree Library [@tyreelibrary]. (2018, October 12). Check out our spooky display for October! All of the books and movies on display are available for checkout [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/Bo1uWOgAZ6b/

(Tyree Library, 2018)

Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 107-108); Instagram References [APA Style]